What is the definition of erythema infectiosum?
Erythema infectiosum is a typical childhood illness that can be found in children that causes the appearance of a cheek slap and an eruption. It is also called the fifth disease and an infection of the human enterovirus.
What causes the erythema infection?
Erythema infectiosum can be caused by an enterovirus EVB19 (parvovirus B19). It is a uni-stranded DNA virus that attacks red cells found in the bone marrow. It is spread through respiratory droplets and is characterized by an incubation time of 7 to 10 days.
Who is affected by erythema infectiosum?
Erythema infectiosum is most often a problem for young children and can be found in a variety of members of the household or class. About 30 percent of people who are infected do not show any symptoms. It also can be a problem for adults who haven’t been exposed previously to the virus.
What are the signs of erythema infectiousiosum?
Parvovirus B19 infection can cause nonspecific viral symptoms like moderate symptoms like mild fever and headache in the beginning. The rash, known as erythema infectioniosum, occurs after a few days with firm red cheeks that feel hot and burning. The rash lasts for 2 to four days and is followed by a pink rash that covers the limbs and, sometimes, the trunk. The lace-like network pattern.
Though most evident within the first several days of the outbreak, this rash may be present for as long as six weeks, if not continuously, and is most noticeable when it is warm.
Complications of erythema infections
While it is usually a minor childhood illness, an enterovirus B19 infection could cause complications. This includes:
- Polyarthropathy in adults with the infection (painful joints, swelling)
- Aplastic crisis, or potentially risky low blood cells for patients suffering from hemolytic blood disorders, such as auto-immune hemolytic anemia and sickle cell disease
- Abortion spontaneously, intrauterine death (9 percent), or hydrops fetal in 3 percent of the offspring of infected pregnant women. It is possible to develop an outbreak of erythema infection during the first trimester of pregnancy. Parvovirus B19 does not cause congenital malformations. Because the likelihood of an adverse outcome is minimal, this infection is not regularly screened during pregnancy.
- Chronic parvovirus infection in immunodeficient patients, such as organ transplant recipients, causing erythropoietin-resistant anemia, proteinuria, and glomerulosclerosis in a renal allograft
- Sometimes, encephalitis, hepatitis, or non-occlusive intestinal infarction. Myositis, amegakaryocytic heart disease
What is the method by which diagnosis of erythema infectioniosum is done?
In most instances, erythema is a diagnosis made by the child with distinctive cheek slaps and a lacy rash. Parvovirus may cause other rashes, such as gloves with papular purpura and socks syndrome. The diagnosis is confirmed through blood tests.
- Parvovirus serology: IgG, IgM. The test results are reported in around seven days.
- The Parvovirus The PCR can be more invasive. The test results are reported in approximately three days.
- In situ hybridization or immunohistochemistry on biopsy specimens
A complete blood count is required if your child is sick or suffers from hemolytic anemia. Ultrasound examination and Doppler test of pregnant women at risk can reveal hydrops fetal.
Treatment of erythema infectioniosum
Erythema infectiosum isn’t usually a severe illness. There isn’t a specific treatment. The affected children can continue attending school if the stage of infection or viremia occurs before the rash becomes obvious.
- Applying an ice-cold fleece can help ease the pain of burning cheeks.
- Transfusions of red blood cells as well as immunoglobulin therapy, are a viable option in the case of chronic parvovirus infections or during aplastic crises.
- The parvovirus-related hydrops fetalis infection can be treated with transfusions intrauterine.
In an accidental encounter with the virus, the varicella-zoster immune globulin, if administered within 96 hours of the initial contact, can lessen the degree of the illness. Still, it is not able to eliminate it. This is utilized when there is no experience or experience with chickenpox (or the patient does not have antibody to the varicella-zoster virus in tests of blood) during pregnancy, during the initial 28 days following the birth, and also in immunodeficient or immune-suppressed people.